Din ilmi ogrenirken dikkatli olalim Farz-i Ayn ve Farz-i Kifaye Ilim nedir

Soru–1: Din ilmi kaç kısma ayırılır?

Cevap–1: Din ilmi birçok kısma ayrılır, ancak bunların en önemlisi şu iki kısımdır: Farz-ı Ayn ve Farz-ı Kifâye.

Allâh-u Teâlâ şöyle buyuruyor:

﴿ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنْبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ﴾

Anlamı: “(Ey Muhammed!) Bil ki, Allâh’tan başka İlâh yoktur. Hem kendinin hem de mümin erkeklerin ve mümin kadınların günahlarının bağışlanmasını dile!”

Soru–2: Din ilmindeki “Farz-ı Ayn” ilim nedir?

Cevap–2: Dinde öğrenilmesi gereken “Farz-ı Ayn” ilim; İslâm’ın Müslüman’a yüklediği itikat, fıkıh ve alış-veriş ile uğraşanın muamelât ilminden olan bir kısımdır. Bunlardan başka; kalp, lisan ve diğer azaların günahlarını öğrenmek, üzerine zekât farz olan kişinin zahir (açık) olan zekât ilmini öğrenmesi ve Hacca gücü yetenin Hac ilmini öğrenmesi her mükellefe farzdır.

Allâh-u Teâlâ şöyle buyurmuştur:

﴿ قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الَّذِينَ يَعْلَمُونَ وَالَّذِينَ لا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴾

Anlamı: “De ki, hiç bilenlerle bilmeyenler bir olur mu?” Yani bilenlerle bilmeyenler eşit olmazlar.

Peygamber Efendimiz ﷺ bir hadis-i şerifte şöyle buyuruyor:

طَلَبُ الْعِلْمِ فَرِيضَةٌ عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِم

Anlamı: “İlim öğrenmek her Müslüman’ın üzerine farz kılınmıştır.”

Tabiinden olan ’Atâ bin Ebî Rabâh şöyle buyurdu:

أَنْ تَتَعَلَّمَ كَيْفَ تُصَلِّي وَكَيْفَ تَصُومُ وَكَيْفَ تَبِيعُ وَكَيْفَ تَشْتَرِي وَكَيْفَ تَنْكِحُ وَكَيْفَ تُطَلِّقُ

Anlamı: “Nasıl namaz kılacağını, nasıl oruç tutacağını, nasıl satın alıp, nasıl satacağını ve nasıl nikâhlanıp nasıl boşayacağını öğrenmendir.”

Soru–3: Din ilmindeki “Farz-ı Kifâye” ilim nedir?

Cevap–3: Dinde öğrenilmesi gereken “Farz-ı Kifâye” ilim; İslâm’ın, her Müslümanın bizzat kendisine değil, Müslüman topluluklarının üzerine yüklediği ilimdir. Kur’ân-ı Kerîm’i ezberlemek, cenaze namazı kılmak ve dalâlet ehline reddiye hazırlamak gibi.

Allâh-u Teâlâ şöyle buyurmuştur:

﴿فَلَوْلَا نَفَرَ مِنْ كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِنْهُمْ طَائِفَةٌ لِيَتَفَقَّهُوا فِي الدِّينِ وَلِيُنْذِرُوا قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُوا إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُونَ﴾

Anlamı: “Onların her kesiminde bir grup dinde (dînî ilimlerde) geniş bilgi elde etmek ve kavimleri (savaştan) döndüklerinde onları ikaz etmek için geride kalmalıdır. Umulur ki sakınırlar.”
Mustafa kemal kirisgil

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